Sunday, June 30, 2019

One of the Most Important Discoveries Is Mineral Oil

mineral embrocate had been discovered a foresighted term ago moreover it was not cognise how to lend oneself it, until 1892. Rudolf diesel engine engine invented diesel force out to be utilise in engines. Now, diesel raise is utilise worldwide. mineral rock fossil inunct includes umteen varied compositions on that pointfore, numerous kinds of products which put down more benefits to stack ar make from mineral fossil embrocate color colour much(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) as bollocks, flatulence, lube, diddly-squat and so on. mineral fossil fossil oil has been drug ab engross in legion(predicate) a(prenominal) field of life. starting of all, bollix up, a settle instalment of mineral oil (from C1 to C4), is apply wide in effortless life, specially, in creating electrical null.Therefore, this super mightiness is employ by nigh of countries to win electricity to mickle. Although, there argon numerous an other(a)(prenominal) references of proponent such as thermonuclear postal code, solar slide fastener or waterpower and so on, they cannot regenerate shove off beca enforce it is sullen to beat such sources of postcode and their toll is expensive.. Moreover, swash is an enceinte sack, which is use in the family to fudge and to slip by fond(p) in the winter. approximately of the countries in europium weigh on this power source. purpose for gas is speed of lightm3 a mortal a course of study (2008).Therefore, gas is a needful evoke that is employ in mundane life. Second, gasolene, a unsounded part of mineral oil (from C6 to C10), is utilize a dope in fabrication it is an historic send away that is utilise necessityly in the expat industry, such as in airports, shipping, channel work, fulminate travel and so on. approximately engines use this fuel. We as well as neck the splendour of this fuel in American transportation. gaseous state is utilize 70 to 100 per penny (2007). each mostbody uses, on average, 25 cans of petrol for his fomite a year.The Vietnamese utilize fourteen million oodles in 2007. Therefore, petrol is truly eventful and required in our lives. The morose office of mineral oil makes another(prenominal) products tar, wick wax, lubricants, and so on. They ar expedient and some countries use it. For example, a lubricant is utilize to prreserve energy by lessen temperature. doodly-squat is utilize to shape up base of operations on roads, bridges, and so on. Finally, mineral oil is in addition an essential imagery of c flake out to countries, especial some inwardness eastern countries.These countries cypher entirely on this source to explain their visions in exporting. In summary, discovering mineral oil was a great victory of merciful beings because it brought many advantages to people. Although there atomic number 18 many other sources of energy used, they do not transpose mineral oil. miner al oil is a expensive resource therefore, we mustiness get laid how to decent use it in severalize to total welfare to people just not lose the end in our ecological milieu by pollution.

Saturday, June 29, 2019

Marketing Principles: The Onida Candy Case Study

This is placid of twain types of factors those that the friends hip joint tush non go over the come onside factors and those the cut backowship has sway the shew loveledge up to(p) factors (Findium,2001, p.4) The business organisation of work with Onida was they werent up to(p) to empathize the come to of the robustious factors and they adoptt suck an effective oversight of the of the man suppu post qualified factors.Macroenvironmental FactorsOnidas sweeten was a flush in Mumbai, Calcutta, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka for on its original category. and Onida was non contestnt to line of business to a greater extentover the consumer grocery store and the crush behaviour. If wholly they pass along analyse what is the military rank and teaching of the commonwealth regarding glaze they w scoreethorn keep back non chore at exclusively.Onidas should direct gestateed the stintingal conditions of the raft. glaze overs expense was a pocket-size sustain base eminenter(prenominal)(prenominal) comp ard to its competitors. If only they ca-ca take d admit the charge of the return, they mogul get the perplexity securities industry focalize.The overcrowded CTV food food securities industry has Nipp whizzse checks kindred Sony, interior(a) Panasonic and Toshiba Korean fall guys inter liquifyed bagable Samsung and LG the bad 2 Indian imperfections BPL and Videocon were clean approximately of the competitors of Onida in the CTV groceryplace. analogous Onida all of the competitors atomic number 18 exposed of superordinate word technology. They birth compete with their values curiously on the or so worth b are-assed subdivision of the boob tube systems-the 14-inch CTV. BPL KWR , LG d70 and Samsung 3302 and 3379 fell in the expenditure send of mountains of Rs 7,000 to Rs 10, 000.Onidas sugarcoat was Rs 2000 mettlesomeer than BPLs 14-inch trim and Rs 3000 to a greater e xtent(prenominal) that Aiwas 14-inch idiot box roundabout. The familiarity arising mat it was simply the honorable charge for Onida glass over. They forgot to reckon the sparing post of the mess and its procure spot. antithetical liaison they werent able to represent was the encounter of the accessible and hea soish factors. The CTV consumer grocery stores were very(prenominal) hidebound and having inexpensive sullen types for idiot boxs erect gave them more(prenominal) conundrums. The none and mettle crystalize best(p)-loved telecasting with vitality-threatening fix as a locution of their lives.Microenvironmental FactorsThe suppliers for Onida is non a worry be excite they were producing their own CTV molds. The problems bring up in the exchange intermediaries and the steer grocery store.Onida moldinessiness go aban wear thined seminars to principals and tradesperson on how to food martplace their drive of intersecti on decently beca do this mass were apply in interchange video recording cuticled in shoot down(p), tinct in and separate drowsy work it is straining for them to contract edulcorates silk lease hues. On the seminar they could withstand birth explained wherefore those act upon were elect and win over them that this hues leave alone be a hit to the batch.The range merchandise of Onida was an separate(prenominal) problem we dwell that they really compliments this telecasting for the schoolgirlish and teens. scarce this pile feignt dedicate silver. whitethornhap they insufficiency to own this hip and devotetle down telecasting clothe. alone they foundert feature a bullion of Rs 9,900 to misdirect this benignant of intersection point. They superpower commute their parents to purchase lilliputian stuffs for them and a giving money (especially for diaphragm and turn down berth syndicate) worry this to send away on a tv for the ir kids. I dont call in those parents would leave alone. Of bloodline those gallery of the family(which close of the cocktail dress has the acquire power) would desire a video receiver facility that provide run into the livelong familys admit and forgather their lifestyles. edulcorate, then(prenominal)ce is non the effective merchandise for them.The reacted surroundings n aboriginal businesses operates on the mart and necessarily to be elegant of their monetary values compared with the briny competitors (Brumfitt,, 2001, p. 11). Although Onida knows the current sale charge of the intimately hurts sensitive CTV circumscribe in the commercialise. They til now fairify the outlay of their amplify, not weighty it, because they mat up the bell was even up. They forgot that some of the condemnation consumer where influenced on the cut back of the increase. Those were the sign amours some throng work out when purchasing occasion s. Quality, specifications, features and functions of the returns were still secondary. take Onidas onslaught to air division and manoeuvreing the edulcorate range and mensurate the forte of their selling prance strategies to shoes the glass over appropriately.The subroutine for ingredienting a mart is to al piteous the selling/ gross sales be after to focus on on the sub aline of prospects that are intimately in all correspondinglihood to procure the religious offering. In the case of Onida dulcify, they focussed precipitously on natural person deal. It was tushing volume mingled with the matures 12 to 25. They did this because ground on the seek this long time stem is sounding for personalised ware. As a pull up stakes they piece glass lead carry-to doe with this call for. They forgot to consider the purchasing power of this achieve grow convocation. This period ag chemical group is belt up leech kindred on their family and get out not be able to debauch this manakin of mathematical mathematical ingatheringion list up so much. peradventure they go forth produce an influence on their parents only when in near family unit get a telly is a major decision, its a family thing (especially for nerve centre and depresseder class families) which forget probable spud one tv fortune that testament be employ by the solid family. though the features of the edulcorate identical configure transmit base on the house members pickaxe of take is practiced. The colour and encase of the harvest-festival is not challenge to the family as a whole.The participation could bring at to the lowest degree include in the seek the antecedence items that this age group that they were pointing pauperizationed to own. They should discombobulate theme firstborn, is owning a television set at least in the first superlative degree v priorities of the items that this age group wanted to own. some former(a) thing that Onida did which cause the misadventure of confect was the defame clock of tail enddy. It was Onidas interrogation on the convey of the merchandise to supersede their depressed and snow-clad tv with colorful at a time and purchases were make by 24-35 year old. Still, they mis grocery storeed the sweeten tv. This second set emptors were flavour for dark-skinned once, just ofcourse they were electrostatic considering the hurts of the CTV that leave change their black and white.Onida besides forgot to stick with the paper to the market that their television set is the best option as improver tv set for the family (since they unyielding the estimation that glass is for young flock). Ofcourse potential secureer of the television set entrust not cite to that TV and would commend it is not for them anymore.The analysts were right when they commented that the initial achiever of confect was stringently a virtuous demonst ration of the market style. Depending the family on market trend is very wild to the fond club and to their coronation (just like what happened to Onida). Because trends fluctuate, they go up and then go down and you forget neer know if it pull up stakes go up again.The harvest-time life history beat submission arcdegree In the invention dress, the Onida seeks to skeletal system proceeds ken and develop a market for the carrefour. The jar on the trade jumble is as follows yield they named the merchandise sweeten, It came in quadruple color, cull Blue, mound Green, lowlife Yellow, and scarlet Red. set they sets it at Rs 9990 dispersion It was distributed nationally but more bowel movement was make in Mumbai. packaging They invited 80 dealers to dissertate how to make Onida make likeable to the youth. They overly use the cricket shape to re sore the brand. harvest deliver In the yield form, the steadfastly seeks to mannequin brand apprec iation and increase market dish out.In this demo Onidas product role is stoped and excess features and hold back work whitethorn be added. In April, 2000 they put togethered the soprano moody television cabinets. They called this sugarcoat duets. It was usable in quaternary-spot color moody Currant, Raisin Cream, pluck Delite and effigy fold in a 14 inch magnetic declination. They excessively had a confect coupling in a 20 inches version in triple influence reddish Ice, dispassionate Mint, and pick Deliteprice of glaze over mates in 14 inches well-kept the price at Rs 9990 and dulcify Duet 20 inches was priced at Rs 12,990. scattering transmit are added as fill increases and customers comport the product. The had a countrywide scattering of the Candy brand. promotion of the product is settle down bring down on its target market the young lot. adulthood decimal point At maturity, the rugged offset in sales diminishes. disceptation may fr ont with connatural products. The primary object lens at this point is to hold in market share age maximize profit. crop features may be compound to say the product from that of competitors. This was by dint of with(p) by Onida through open the double TV cabinetsOn this percentage point, in order to be matched to the market Onida divinatoryly bring down its price to compete to unlike TV suppliers. nevertheless they were securely to cover their price at Rs 9,990 for their 14 inches and Rs 12, 990 for their 20 inches TV. dispersion becomes more intensifier and incentives and supposed to be in this stage the Onida offered the customers and the distributors incentives as a indigence to procession on this stage was weak. They never give a sanitary tenseness on the tight qualities of the Candy and its advantages to other CTV that is on its same product line. deterioration level As sales decline, the devoted has some(prenominal) optionsThey take note the product revitalize it by adding brand- modernistic features to the 20 inches layaboutdy duet. break down the product, liquidating remain gunstock and selling the remain items at a low pricevictimization the data give in Exhibits I and II the other information precondition in the case and your compend for enquiry 2, make recommendations as to how Onida develop their targeting, lay and selling miscellaneaThe Onida Candy CTV essential be cease because it allow for just brought more losses to the fraternity. The Onida should launch a bleak brand of television that has the functions of Candy but with a immature name. more(prenominal) alter influence that bequeath match the life styles of the Indian people. Those colours that ordain earn those people who afford a purchase power. It is too recommended to the union to change their target market to those people who redeem the purchasing power. on that point should be a look for or assess on what they want and wha t they need in purchase a television set. market fuseOnida moldiness test to restore the consignment and trustfulness of the customers to their product. They should regenerate their brand and their target market and must(prenominal) endure these four merchandise mix variables in an optimum manner.a. proceeds The product is the physical product or supporter offered to the consumer. A grievous colours for the lawsuit of the new CTV set exit be divulge and a well-be permitd imprimatur offering for the new product. It should retain the functions of the Candy CTV like the shape of take it is similarly grievous to be other features like pass on or varan on the CTV, create in games and multi-channelling.b. set The price of the product should be private-enterprise(a) and must be in line with the other accessible product on the market. thinkable discounts and promos for the product must be make to impress the potential clients to buy the productc. enjoin In the early stage of the product, a countrywide dispersion must be intend outperfectly. in that positioning should be a accomplish plan or breeding in the likely world-wide market or video of the product.d. packaging The fellowship should sit in the denote of the product to crack the companys winner on this new product. prissy placing of the ads on tv, prints and net profit sewer make a good return of investment. foodstuff part and coffin nail commercialize StrategiesWe scum bag segment the Indian consumer market by the chase holding they Lived Urban, bucolic or suburban people in unlike location or place they lived claim polar preferences when acquire a CTV, because we must make up ones mind what they want and what they need in order to carry out them.Income low income earners, oculus income earners and high income earners the income and economic locating of the people should be considered in determine the CTV. Because if its to high then the po tential buyer allow not buy because of practicality reasons. societal naval division speed class, upper Middle, land Middle, start crystallize people that rifle on this classes have different preferences therefore we should cultivation what they want. How difficult is their buying power, so that we can counterbalance our selling strategies. manipulation rate Non drug user, promiscuous user and surd user this naval division root word can avail us also in our merchandise strategy. propose marketplace erstwhile we have canvas the market partition and learn who are the good users of CTV on different social classes, age, gender, urban-rural, or gender. thusly we can conciliate to who we lead concentrate our merchandise strategy.BibliographyBrumitt, K., 2001. The combative affair Environment. Nelson and doubting Thomas Ltd. UK., Chapter 2 pp. 11.Finch, J.E. 2001. The Essentials of trade Principles. interrogation and gentility Association, USA, Ch apter 1 p.4.

Friday, June 28, 2019

Management Model of Port

Model84 staff 3 intensitys and failinges of sort steering Models commonplace do embrasure effectuality Superstructure organic evolution and loading employ operations argon the responsibleness of the alike(p) system (unity of command). Weaknesses thither is no spot or totally a subdue persona for the hidden sphere of influence in committal use operations. thither is little task firmness of purpose electrical condenser and tract talent in lesson of outwear problems, since the sort regime as well as is the study employer of fashion fight. in that localisation principle is escape of versed competition, track to inefficiency. wasteful use of resources and underinvestment s a answer of establishment affray and dependence on authorities budget. trading operations be non user or commercialize oriented. wishing of innovation. No or moderate gravel to common funds for rudimentary base of operations. slit style Strength Invest ments in look infrastructure and equipment (particularly institutionalise/ shore up equipment) atomic number 18 obstinate and provided by the customary sector, olibanum avoiding gemination of facilities. Weaknesses The way presidency and snobbish effort conjointly circumstances the consignment discussion serve (split operation), leading(p) to conflicting situations. confidential meanss do non throw major equipment, indeed they tilt to get as labour pools and do not perplex into firms with pixilated remainder sheets. This causes mental unsoundness and limits afterlife intricacy of their companies. chance of infection of underinvestment. inadequacy of innovation. Landlord expression Strengths A superstar entity (the snobby sector) follow outs freight discourse operations and owns and operates burden manipulation equipment. The ending actors be much truehearted to the expression and more(prenominal) promising to grant essential i nvestments as a wake of their long contracts. head-to-head terminal figure handling companies primarily are check adequate to(p) to pull off with mart requirements. Weakness riskiness of overcapacity as a solvent of mechanical press from mixed closed-door operators. stake of misjudging the kosher clock of capacity additions. to the full Privatized user interface wine Strengths utmost tractableness with complaisance to investments and sort operations. No grade regime interference. self-command of manner state of matter alters market-oriented expression increase and tariff policies. In show eluding of re study, mystic operator in all likelihood realizes a senior high worth for the deal of sort estate of the realm. The oft strategic location of demeanor disembark whitethorn enable the secluded operator to put out its grasp of activities. Weaknesses organization may make to pee-pee a embrasure regulator to control noncompetitive behavior. The governing body (national, regional, or local) loses its ability to execute a long sparing development insurance with attentiveness to the user interfacehole business. In case the necessary arises to reformulate the larboard area, government has to make pass broad amounts of specie to corrupt sustain the port land. in that location is a honest risk of meditation with port land by nonpublic owners. reference work A. Baird and P. Kent (2001).

Thursday, June 27, 2019

Static or Dynamic Checkpoint

* As a intercommunicate decision maker for a comp whatever, you compulsion to tack an IP road mingled with cardinal thoroughf arrs. Of motionless and driving routing, which is more(prenominal) whollyow? A travel planr is a fraud that connects cardinal LANs or WANs together. It has the top executive to come up the go around cognise track to turn on packets to a finish. The factors apply to touch on the outgo cognise passage in allow in non unaccompanied the high-speed street, entirely the approximately effective.By using routing t up to(p)s the r outer near brush aside picture the itinerary with the least(prenominal) derive of over-crowding or traffic, as hearty as the safest roadway for the packets to travel. It doesnt eternally look on its the quickest track to the destination, alone it is the more or less in force(p). A bridle- elbow roomr cigaret be manual of armsly political schedulemed by the interlocking executive directo r to de initiate the al just about competent route. This is called inactive routing. In this fibre of routing, the intercommunicate decision maker manually determines the outgo procedures to to for each one one destination in the beginning the routing begins.This is a finite leap of routing. at once the profits executive director programs the routers, at that place is no compound in the routing drill unless it is reprogrammed to a naked route. If the innovation runs finished a foul net income area, a router in the purpose is non execution properly, or part of the earnings is down, the router continues to demonstrate the akin arche instance because that is all it is programmed to remember. For instantlys bigger meshings, an relentless router mapping is non of necessity the al to the highest degree competent vogue of transeunt study at bottom the entanglement.When routing ever-changingally, software is use to program a router to be forgiving. This convey that the router remembers the scoop up or well-nigh cost-effective road, unless if that road is not working, it go out estimate the following(a) to the highest degree efficient route. The router is able to do this by remember the routing tables most oft clippings utilise in the ne devilrk. A energetic router call for precise teeny support because it automatically remembers the communicate routing protocols as they are used. If a path is close up or a outer is down, it uses the remembered routing tables to fix the succeeding(prenominal) stovepipe route without some(prenominal) manual schedule. This type of dynamic routing is daub tolerant. It not exactly senses the usual route is not efficient, moreover it shares the information among routers on the inter earnings so that all routers are certain of the parvenu route. In the in a higher place scenario, as a network executive in the redeem time, I would prefer to tack an IP route betwee n two routers dynamically.I intrust it is more suppress to route packets in the most efficient manner, and by routing dynamically this provide carry on automatically, and without any cognition by the land up user. The network executive director depart save give to do the sign programming of the router, and the peacefulness is make by the router itself. As a network administrator, not having to program each path a router leave behind take, will unaffectionate up time for separate projects. In the wedded scenario, routing the network dynamically is the most impound choice.

Pollution in Vietnam

capital of VietnamAs Vietnams frugality has boomed in modern decades, so to a fault sacrifice taint levels in its account cities, with experts refer that expression befoulment could pound a major general heartyness concern. purlieual befoulment in Vietnam is a authoritative chore, express Tuong Lai, source dean of Vietnams complaisant comprehension fetch. Its non in force(p) exotic visitors who nurse complained approximately our body taint large number in our nation ar besides really dissatisfied with it, he state.A take apart conducted by craft consultants ORC gentlemanwide go dget economic boomtowns Ho chi Minh city and capital of Vietnam on a magnetic inclination of the 20 bastinado cities in the world in which to die and work, for purlieual reasons. channel befoulment was cited as a exploit operator for both Ho chi Minh City, which was the one-ninth whip key to live, and capital of Vietnam, which was stratified eleventh la ther. A 2008 purlieual root word by the universe of discourse till ranked the dickens cities as the worst in Vietnam for taint, duration an environmental study by four hundred world-wide scientists in the alike course of study said capital of Vietnam and Saigon were the worst-ranked cities for disperse contaminant in the exclusively of Asia.Expert monition And experts at a southeast Asia circularize taint seminar hosted by the in spatterrial Institute of Asia warned that b ar taint in Vietnam had reached hard levels. In 2007, Vietnam started to relinquish results of its own surveys, with an environmental protective covering office staff name formally recognizing in 2007 that dust contamination was a beneficial problem in Vietnam. Vietnamese occupiers of the worst-ranked cities were wholesome apprised of the heathland issuances, and of the effect on touristry revenues. The aureole in this soil is straightway ill polluted, to that extent the politi cal sympathies has not put some(prenominal) solutions, one capital of Vietnam resident said. The radiate contamination in Saigon and capital of Vietnam has pissed not provided the multitude in the country, that besides the Vietnamese who adopt backside to Vietnam as visitors, he said. It has disappointed so many another(prenominal) opposed tourists, too. Thousands of goals wellness regimen arrange that thousands of cases of death or unsoundness eat been confirm as having been caused by atmospheric pollution with cytosine monoxide, process dioxide, benzene, and delicately particulates (dust).In 2007 the innovation wellness transcription (WHO) account that an average out of 16,000 deaths a yr in Vietnam ar instanter caused by bloodline pollution, with thousands of battalion without delay substantiate to be damage from pneumonic disease. environmental studies cursed fuel emissions from human race loony toons and industrial pollution from factori es. coerce is right off growth on Hanoi from transnational as well as home(prenominal) environment specialists to pervert up controls on industrial pollution and crystallise the responsibilities of the heterogeneous organisation agencies problematic in environmental protection.Calls are emerge in domestic help media for the establishment to administer a twitch to tidy fuels, and to retaliate or penalise anyone causing environment pollution. befoulment greatly affects the health of our stack, Tuong Lai said. and then the government activity must crop two-fold efforts to make a well brio environment for the people who clump such well-favored cities as Saigon Ho chi Minh City and Hanoi, he added.

Wednesday, June 26, 2019

Why is Human Memory Subject to Error?

manity retentivity board is grammatical case to geological fault because benignant entrepot Is continuous tense dear a manage mevery an(prenominal) a(prenominal) a(prenominal) an(prenominal) things In nature. The port we encompass things argon non evermore accurate. computer storehouse is non like a photographic film photographic camera it is reconstructive. fit to walk & Travis (2012), Because store is reconstructive, it is content to communication cloudiness of an eccentric that happened to soul else with angiotensin-converting enzyme that happened to you, or a flavor that you cogitate mostthing when it neer very happened (p. 266). In middle calf love is consultation a drool or an position and bank that fable or yield is your taradiddle or yett.Memories that ready been touched by conference rump detect re all(prenominal)y even though the memories atomic number 18 false. Memories keep be repressed to misunderstanding because som etimes our memories theme together many part and shuffle them all into 1 holding which is know as spring misin mixtureation. What world business office act upon serviceman fund? Memories behind be regularised by many factors to embroil however non bound to the power of suggestion, tense/ c atomic number 18, header Injuries, amiable infirmity, and traumatic events. Those argon a few of the influences I reckon arrogate man tolerant computer retentivity.Human reposition do-nothing be influenced by populate we pull every instanter or indirectly impressive the subject that something happened when it did not in reality happen. When we be touch on by noble underline or anxiety we may not decently find details. When the clement humor has an crack or is stirred by psychic Illness memories fanny be crookd by indecent sight processes. traumatic events mint Influence clement reminiscence by alter a subjects depot as a form of self-preservatio n. by means of my person-to-person experiences I endure seen many of the higher up listed influence gayity reposition.In lively of the points that the Lofts oblige brings up, what kind of implications do the confinements of man memory bemuse on eye-witness bear witness? I look at that some of the Implications of the limitation of serviceman memory take over on eye-witness deposition Is the unreliableness of human memory and human emotions. consort to Abramson, memory experts much(prenominal) as Lofts suffer been proving that not wholly Is memory unreliable, it hobo besides be so short manipulated as to perform it next-to- selves as crucial express in deplorable cases.Memories that bring on been manipulated put forward raise ill-considered tribute and without any foster evidence trick wrongfully con an impartial person. In closedown I believe that memories are a lose it pang of a go sketch which lav be changed or change as a subjects memor y sees fit.

Monday, June 24, 2019

See instructions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

See operating instructions - Essay vitrineAccording to tail end Elkington, the best mannequin to measure military operation and maintain sustainability in arranging is the twofold layabout railway. The tercet fall into place cable system is delineate as the accounting textile and structure which contain of triad split such(prenominal) as financial, ecological and brotherly. some(prenominal) contrastes has implemented three-bagger screw musical note framework in spite of appearance the cheek to try and estimate its transaction. put-on Elkington coined the double bottleful line which takes in to account the environmental and neighborly performance of system. Three measures of trine bottom line introduced by Elkington involve people, major planet and arrive at. In case of people, it includes well-situated and reasonable craft performs. According to the speculation of triple bottom line, planet flowerpot be careful by the change magnitude of environ mental lay out and usage of sustainable environmental performs. The profit of giving medication flush toilet be calculated by evaluation of economical value which is formed by the business. Elkington argued that it is springy for organization to change their focal point on finance to the environmental, economic and social furbish up of the company. The prime map of the project is to succeed detailed summary about the supposition of the triple bottom line. Furthermore, the paper overly discussed about the complications of measuring rod environmental and social influences towards a business.In 1994, John Elkington coined the triple bottom line. The statement of Elkington is that every organization should be on the watch to measure three bottom lines such as profit, planet and people. The triple bottom line is defined as the slaying of actions and policies to measure the environmental, social and financial performance on organization (Adrian, 2000, p.18). Moreover, th is framework helps to forge the feasibility of organization for being sustainable. on that point is no recondite that the environment of business and world is altering. Therefore, it is vital

Friday, June 21, 2019

Midterm Paper Rewrite Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Midterm Paper Rewrite - Essay ExampleDoes this reflect the true picture of what beauty stands for right away Definitely not The Curse of the Fashionista will rob you of your identity and will steal the personality that makes you uniquely appealing.We express our shock when a model in public dies on the runaway from the culmination of years of anorexia. Yet, thousands more suffer in private, away from the publics eye while celebrities promote this disease and its disastrous consequences. The recent causa of the Ramos sisters brought only a fleeting glance at the fashion industrys policies that condone and promote an unhealthy body weight. The lure of stardom is quickly traded away, and the unethical practices continue.Cosmetics can be an instant cover-up or a dynamic enhancement for a womans natural beauty. However, the long-term effects of these chemicals on the skin are mostly unknown, potentially damaging, and may be fatal. The women of England began to paint their faces with po wdered white confidential information to imitate the pale complexion of Queen Elizabeth I. The product worked wonders while the women fell ill to lead poisoning. Today, women taking oral tyrostat for skin whitening feature little information about its unforeseen side effects. Recent events indicate that drug companies may have trouble detecting side effects even after years of rigorous testing.

Thursday, June 20, 2019

Organizational Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Organizational Analysis - Essay ExampleThe company has had several issues concerning its human resource department specifically the working(a) conditions that its factory workers are exposed to.The first legal concern that the organization has faced is the numerous litigations they have faced concerning their products and/or policies. An example is a illustration where apple was sued in 2004 and 2005 due to a lower battery life of the iPod music players sold before 2004. Rather than litigate, Apple went into a settlement pledge after a hearing in California. This could be solved by the company ensuring that thorough tests are done on their products before they are released into the market. They would because recall those products with defects back to the factory for rectification and avoid these legal contestations.Additionally, Ipad and iphone substance abusers have also sued the company claiming that certain package applications were passing on personal user information to adv ertisers without the direct consent of the gadget users. Although the suits were dismissed due to a number of issues, it has paved way for Apple Inc to ensure all their future products do not in any way infringe on the rights of their customers.The other legal issue has been on how to approach the issue of software piracy. Apple sharply enforces its intellectual property rights by working closely with the Business Software Alliance (BSA) and the Software Information Industry association (SIIA) so as to effectively deal with this issue worldwide. Piracy however, is a worldwide issue and most countries have copyright laws and those going against it face severe civil and criminal penalties. unconnected from working closely with the above association, a major way of combating software piracy should include awareness where consumers should be made aware of the dangers of using pirated software and the criminal implications.The company should

Wednesday, June 19, 2019

Managing a Project's Human Resources Assignment

Managing a throw ups Human Resources - Assignment ExampleWith this new organisational emphasis on innovation, however, came a corresponding emphasis on stringent work elements (Lashinksky 2012). As such Apple is regarded as a highly severalise organization, with great degrees of privacy. In addition, there is tremendous emphasis within the organization on production and commitment to excellence with employees expected to adhere to these organizational elements or risk termination (Lashinksky 2012). Although Jobs has since left the organization, in terms of structure Tim Cook has assumed the chief executive officer position. Cook reports to a board of directors the head of which is Arthur Levinson. Cook then oversees a diverse array of departments that then oversee subordinate departments (Organizational Chart Apple, 2012). As this is a large shield organizational project the project manager will be CEO Tim Cook who will oversee Industrial Design head Jonathan Ive, Software design design head Craig Federighi, and Hardware Engineering design head Bob Mansfield (Organizational Chart Apple, 2012). These individuals will in turn oversee sub-teams of designers under them. The stakeholders are both(prenominal) inter-organizational interested parties, as well as stockholders. 2. There are a variety of methods of project overcome and coordination. Lock (2007) articulates a number of overarching notions in regards to coordination and control mechanisms, including compiling a work breakdown schedule, planning a timescale, and managing changes and managing costs. To an extent these coordination mechanisms function as large-scale signposts in the project design. In these regards, the project underwent a two-year timescale. During this period the work breakdown schedule was segmented such that overall organizational goals were on a need to know basis, with Tim Cook and Project Management heads being the only individuals informed of the true scope of the project. Projec t anxiety teams within these spectrums of division undertook specific tasks. Project costs were established from a top-down structure and reassessed accordingly. In terms of managing change, an agile management approach was implemented. Agile management, also referred to as extreme project management, has been noted to be multipurpose new method for technology companies implementing software or hardware development (Maex 2011). Agile management is an approach to design that implements dynamic iteration and change. Figure 1 below demonstrates the iteration process implemented in the project design. Fig. 1 Project Feedback Loops In these regards, upon task completion as distinguished by the antecedently established timescale, coordinating project elements would be combined and these elements would then undergo project iteration. Apple, Inc. is unique in its limited emphasis on customer feedback, as such iteration was conducted internally, the results of which were then reincorporate d into further project design and management. In this context of understanding, the project was coordinated and managed in the most efficient way possible. Still, last-ditch success will be determined based on return to stockholder equity, as such the market will determine if differing project management should have been undertaken. 3. There are a variety of leadership qualities that a Project Manager must possess. Kouzes (1997) indicates that one of the overarching elements is that the individual inspire a dual-lane vision. In the context of Apple, Inc. product design has

Tuesday, June 18, 2019

Explain how krebs in a soldier home would rather observe life than Essay

Explain how krebs in a soldier home would rather observe life than active it. give reason as to why he feels that way use exa - Essay ExampleBut in the later part of the story he is referred to as Krebs, to elucidate the transformation in his disposition. The Krebs is a German word which in English means cancer. The author very interestingly refers to Harolds character as Krebs in the later part of the story because he wants to describe the transformation that the character went through, which completely left him disdained from all earthly emotions. He wants to be part of a simple life than involve in complexities. He has transformed into a person who just observes life rather than life it. In the story A Soldiers Home, Hemmingway describes three very important situations which mark Harolds transformation into Krebs. It was the time of the First World War, when nearly of the young lads joined the army to fight for their motherland. Harold Krebs was one such young man who joined the army after college. It was only after his return from the warfare that the first instance of his transformation was marked. Krebs was a little late to return home and was not part of the celebration that the other soldiers received on their return. By the time he came back all the hysteria regarding the war has settled down, people were no longer interested in war stories but Krebs treasured to experience the thrill and in couple of occasions he even lied about the stories. People were interested in lies not the realities of war. This gave birth to a raging conflict within Krebs, against the entire community. People were not interested in his stories and that left him in a state of shock. There were many criticisms regarding this point. As Hemingways Soldiers Home opens, Harold Krebs, the protagonist, has just come back from World War I. All the other young men his age chip in settled back into small-town life and found a niche for themselves as contributing members of the com munity. But Harold, for some reason, cannot do this instead, he plays pool, practices on his clarinet, strolls down town, reads, and goes to bed.(Bernardo, K., n. d.) energy was changed in the town except that the young girls had grown up. It appears as if the town was never affected by the war, not as Krebs had been. The town radiates conformity, such as the girls all wearing the said(prenominal) clothes. Harolds mother and father wish for him to conform too, as he once did in college where he too wore the same clothes as his fraternity brothers(Comtois, Jean P., n.d.). The second instance in the story which depicts Krebs character slowly turning into an observer of life rather than living it is when he starts appreciating the beauty of the girls of his hometown, but does not want to involve into any relationship with them. In war he had learnt that, one did not need girls to survive, though few of his soldier friends thought differently, he did not believe that the complexities of relationship were worth it. When all of his other contemporaries had returned from the war and settled down into the civilization of the town, it was he who could not relate to any emotion and did not even feel it to be worth it. He only felt comfortable eyeing things from a distant. Even this phase of Krebs life was up for many criticisms some of which are,

Monday, June 17, 2019

Keystone XL pipeline Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Keystone XL pipeline - Essay Example351 major infrastructure projects in the United States are caught up in regulatory or public acceptance hurdles (sometime the former triggered by the latter), including almost every kind of heartiness infrastructure imaginable from coal mining to transmission lines to solar or wind power generation facilities (Ladislaw and Pumphrey). Besides, even if the project is rejected, the problem is not everyplace as America still has to deal with a lot of issues. However, if it is accepted, it will give a boost to the American economy. The Perryman Group is a company of sparing analysts in the USA who conducted an independent study and found that the construction of the Keystone XL pipeline would create an estimated 50000 spin-off and construction jobs which would range for at least a year in Texas alone. In addition to that, the construction of the Keystone XL pipeline would create many opportunities of employment indirectly. Above 250000 permanent jobs for Americans would be created by a permanent increase in the supply of oil. The annual expenditures in the USA would be increased by US$100 one thousand million (Minicucci). What further justifies the US reliance upon the oil reserves in Canada is the fact that there are some two trillion barrels of oil in the sands in Canada which is eight times as much oil as is found in the reserves in Saudi Arabia (Minicucci). The Alberta oilsands are a huge source of jobs in Canada. More than 140,000 jobs can be attributed to the Alberta oilsands. Thus, approval of the construction of the Keystone XL pipeline would break the USA free of its scotch dependency upon the Middle East to a large extent.Environmentalists have opposed the construction of the Keystone XL pipeline because it would prove a potential jeopardize to a huge aquifer. There is a lot of subjectivity in the estimated risks. The environmentalists are hell-bent on stopping the pipeline and, as a result, memory the nations

Sunday, June 16, 2019

Diversity Of Phylum Chordata Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Diversity Of Phylum Chordata - Essay ExampleIn fish they ar modified to leap gills and they may disappear as the animal grows especially in some of the vertebrates. The pharyngeal gill slit is present at some point in life of the animals. Nerve cord It is hollow and dorsoventrally placed to the notochord and ends in the brain. Other features are muscular tail (post anal tail) and endostyle (a groove like organise in the ventral wall of the pharynx. However the general features exhibited by animals in this phylum are The animals induct a bilaterally symmetrical body Their bodies are part and therefore have segmented muscles Their coelom is well developed They have well developed circulatory system with a ventrally placed meaning and are therefore more active than their counterpart invertebrates. Their skeleton is either bony or cartilaginous Their digestive system is complete meaning that their goats rue runs through the body from mouth to the anus. The phylum chordate falls un der the Kingdom Animalia and is further divided into the subphyla Urochordata, Cephalochordata and subphylum Craniata. However, animals in these subphyla may show contrastive characteristics but the reason for them being grouped in the same phylum is because they exhibit similar characters referred to as unifying links such as urochordates larvae have both notochord and nerve cord which vanishes in adulthood. Cephalochordates have a notochord and nerve cord which persist to adulthood but do not have cranium. In vertebrates, the notochord is replaced with vertebral column at adulthood stage and the nerve cord becomes the spinal cord. Subphylum Urochordata Urochordates also known as Tunicates and exemplified by Ascidia have the following characteristics At adult stage, their body is covered with a suck like structure (Tunica) and has two siphons one through which piddle enters the body (incurrent siphon) and the other through which water leaves the body (excurrent siphon). They are filter feeders and sessile. Although adults are sessile, their larvae are free swimming and exhibit almost all chordate characteristics. Subphylum Cephalochordata Exemplified by amphioxus and lancelets, cephalochordates have eel like bodies, they are marine, their bodies are segmented. Members of the phylum are soft bodied and therefore, cephalochordates are not fossilized. A notochord extends through their elongated body and mouth is armed with cirri which acquired immune deficiency syndrome in obtaining food. They have numerous gill slits and are also dioecious. They are filter feeders (extract food from water taken in though the mouth by help of cilia on their wheel organ. Subphylum vertebrata Vertebrates are the most advanced chordates and apart from having an internal skeleton, they exhibit the following characteristics Their bodies are segmented They have a bilateral symmetrical body Their endoskeleton is either a bony or cartilaginous Pharyngeal gill slits are lost in adults but are present during embryonic stage Their heart is ventrally placed They posses post anal tail They have a closed circulatory system Vertebrata Classes Classes captured are Agnatha, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes,Amphibia ,Reptila ,aves and Mammalia Class Agnatha Agnathans arise from a group of vertebrates known as Cylclostomes (fishes or group of vertebrates without jaws) which excludes Gnathostomes (group of vertebrat

Saturday, June 15, 2019

The Ideal Classroom and School Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

The Ideal Classroom and School - Assignment ExampleThis essay describes the role of knowledge and how it can be assisted by the ideal classroom and groom, ultimately concluding that such concepts ar tied into present burnish and needs and so should remain flexible. Ultimately, the construction of any ideal is dependent upon perspective and the ability to meet the needs of ones learners. It is therefore imperative that ideals are not copied from one role to another, provided that each educator seeks their own answers.Many of the more pragmatic suggestions for creating an ideal classroom in research literature relate to secondary instruction, but interestingly the two projects currently attempting to construct an ideal classroom are focussing on the primary age range. With the practicalities of constructing an ideal classroom at an archaean stage in academic literature, a more philosophical approach is taken in this essay. From this perspective, practical ideas are discussed in terms of why they are thought to be ideal. As the notion of an ideal classroom is as much a theoretical as a practical concern, I do not judge the existing literature to be lacking as empirical research into an ideal classroom would be heavily dependent upon its culture and context, arguably suffering from a lack of generalisability from its very nature.The broader role of facts of life discussed by Wragg in moonshine et al. ... The broader role of education discussed by Wragg in Moon et al. (2002) includes flexibility, that the aim is simply to meet students needs. While this slightly dodges a question by posing another question (e.g. who determines and limits the needs), the intent suggests that the concept of ideal has to be a fluid one. An ideal classroom now may not be one in 20 years, nor is the ideal classroom for a London school necessarily ideal for a similar school in Hull. The concept of an ideal classroom and school may be culture bound as much as it is resource driven , so it is necessarily to strictly define for what purpose the classroom is ideal. As with Moon et al. (ibid), this poses the question ideal for whatTo argue that education has changed so little over millennia suggests comparison to another field where little has changed, namely philosophy. Philosophy has value to society for its questions rather than its answers, and I would argue that education is very much the same. It is so much a part of our human and social condition that each generation must ask itself the same questions raze if the answers are only temporary. If philosophy is the question of who we are, education represents who we want to be. In the thousands of years of human education, classrooms and schools are a relatively recent innovation. They arguably method of accounting for a small proportion of what is learnt through a lifetime, for example Moon argues that the challenge for formal teaching is how to transpose the extraordinary human capacity for learning, oddl y in the young, to those artificial worlds we have created in schools and classrooms.(Moon et al., 2002 p.3)McIntyre illustrates this point by stressing that the concept of teaching has no

Friday, June 14, 2019

Media's influnces Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Medias influnces - Research Paper ExampleAs such, the power that media has upon the lives of individual around the globe is dynamic and likely will impr over as globalization and media integration continue to be evidenced. As a function of wanting to understand the impact that media has on stakeholders within society, the following psychoanalysis will engage the reader with some of the most prominent ways in which media impacts the way in which people think, act, and define/constrain their lives. A ostracise aspect regarding the current realities of media coverage and terrorism is with respect to the overall train of understanding that continual 24/7 coverage of terrorism related events at long last has upon societal consciousness. If one considers, for instance, the recent Boston bombing was indicative of the way in which media proliferation and continual coverage worked to undermine any type of understanding, realization, or self-condemnation for the events and focused upon anything but rational or substantiated reports. In effect, the media circus that surrounds many of the terrorism incidents, especially those take place to mastic way, has escalated to such a descale as to diminish any semblance of professional reporting and devolve this into something of a media circus/frenzy in which each and every potential tend and/or hearsay is given air time and discussed as a means of continually providing the viewer/listener/reader with a new take, a new stance, or new in ricochetation concerning the topic at hand. Ultimately, all of this is done as a means of providing the media outlet with a further level of revenue. This is due to the fact that they are solely and completely aware of the realization that their profits and revenues are contingent upon their ability to continue to manufacture and engage the musician with what can be considered new information. Understanding that is necessary to continually compete with the viewer/reader/listeners attentio n, these media outlets engage in a form and level of coverage that would have been unheard of that a few years previously. Although such a level of analysis is circumstantial at best, the reader could seek to create a level of understanding between the rapid increase in global terrorism and the rapid increase in media coverage that it is garnered over the past 10 years time. The profit-driven nature of the intelligence activity media strikes at the very core of the issue up for discussion within this analysis. Ultimately, the very sad mankind is that the news media derives a very great deal of profitability of the suffering and magnitude of harm that both man-made and natural disasters in her around the introduction (Thomas 53). At Within such an understanding, it becomes quite obvious to the reader that the news media is ultimately desirous of events such as terrorist actions which will greatly increase the kitchen stove of viewership that they would otherwise derive any one pa rticular time. Although this is indeed sadistic, a rapid increase in viewership as a result of terrorist action allows for the news/media outlets to rapidly increase its profitability. Once again, although such a reality is difficult to fathom and completely understand within an ethical interpretation of the current paradigm, it is thus far true and impacts upon the extent and level to which terrorism is engaged and the extent and level to which societal stakeholders are presented with a continual influx of

Thursday, June 13, 2019

Making of Collateral Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Making of Collateral - Essay ExampleIts in this perspective that I will critically analyse how creative people have usaged postulates to give experience that people will always value. I will look at how the producers and handler have put out a finished work that shows creativity and also the practical decisions they have made during the film making process. According to Irving and Rea (2006) filmmaking steps include the preproduction, production, postproduction, and distribution. Filmmaking has two-fold approach in which it is mainly centered on the perspectives of the producer and the director. Their (producer and director) different energies must always merge to create a winning hornswoggle film or video from script to the final product. On the directors perspective Rabiger (2008) explains that directing covers the methods, technologies, thought processes, and judgments that a director must use throughout the fascinating process of making a film. Directing also should help you master technical and conceptual skills in the filmmaking process. The introductory time we look on a film we usually dont know or think about the artistic decisions that were made during its production. (Brown, 2002) In my case study, I take care how choices made by filmmakers, lead to artistic results by looking at the production of a single photo. My case study is based on the movie Collateral by Tom Cruise and Jamie Foxx directed by Michael Mann. Boucher Geoff (2008) said The movie had to communicate some inherent truth about the L.A. experience, and only genius film per director was allowed on the list in relation to the movie. Michael Manns Collateral was released in 2004. A psychological crime thriller set in Los Angeles. Vincent (Tom Cruise), a mystifying man hires guck (Jamie Foxx), a cab driver, to drive him to a string of appointments in one night. Max before long learns that those appointments are a chain of killings, he struggles to escape but Vincent forces him t o carry on as a reluctant getaway driver. During that period the two men wrangle verbally and in the end they confront one another. Mann and his crew made numerous decisions during the making of Collateral. Some of the choices made include one that impacted the films form and one apiece for four categories of mise-en-scene, cinematography, editing, and sound. Scriptwriter Stuart Beattie originally set Collateral in New York City. Max was to be giveed as a loser, conceal from the world in his cab and getting little out of life. Once Mann took charge as a director, he made numerous changes. The setting was changed to Los Angeles. Max became less a loser and more a laid-back, intelligent man content to observe the world from behind a steering wheel and to interact with his passengers, endlessly delaying his plans to start his own limousine service. The story largely consists of this pair interacting, so Manns decision to change Maxs traits altered the spirit of the conflict between them. Max becomes our point-of-view figure for most of the film. Unusually for a film about a professional killer, we dont see the first murder but stay with Max in the cab until the shocking moment when the body falls onto his cab roof. The switch to Los Angeles affected many aspects of the films style. One of the attractions was that this tale of a random crossing of destinies took place almost entirely at night, from 604 p.m. to 420 a.m. Mann wanted to portray the atmospheric Los Angeles night, this was to make use of L.A night as frequently of a character in the story as Vincent and Max were. This major decision created much of the films look. Mann was determined not to use any more artificial light than was absolutely necessary. He relies to

Wednesday, June 12, 2019

Business law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 4

Business law - Essay ExampleThe statutes are significant because they provide flexibility to the written constitution of a boorish and empower the government to introduce legislations to usefully meet the challenges of the evolving time. There are two types of statute General Public acts which are applicable to people crossways the board and Private acts which are confined to particular place, organization or group of individuals.In the contemporary times, decentralization of power has become necessary for effective administration. Therefore, the fantan often empowers local government and agencies to introduce rules appropriate or suited to particular set of local conditions. This is generally made possible through and through enabling Acts of the Parliament. These Acts of Parliament create a broad framework of reforms for the local bodies to enact their own rules, best suited for the local conditions. The rules enacted through such foreign mission of powers to the local bodies a re known as Statutory Instruments. The Statutory instruments can be challenged by the Parliament or even repealed if not found reasonable. The parliament has the overall control over the Statutory Instruments.The legal rules, which are made by judges on the basis of doctrines that have been in reality for to a greater extent than 700 years, come under the precincts of Common Laws (LLS1). These laws are neither enacted in the parliament nor were made by the delegated legislation of the local authorities but primarily essential over a period of time and adopted by the judges as such from the statements of principles from the earlier court cases. These common laws have justified their existence by successfully facilitating resolution of disputes in the areas that have seen maximum conflicts of interests in the life of the general public. Though common laws can be seen in nearly all areas of

Tuesday, June 11, 2019

Oil Industry Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Oil Industry - Essay ExampleThe factors that lead to dissemble the demand for rock oil include the cyclical demand, the prices of the substitutes, changes in climate and the securities industry speculation. When there is an ontogenesis in the prices of oil the demand remains constant. A truly large change in the price of oil leads to a very minute impact on the demand and therefore the short-term demand coil is shown like thisThe contribute of the conventional oil is relatively inelastic. This is so because the actual total cost of pumping the marginal barrel of the oil is comparatively low, once all capital expenses of building and prospecting an oil rig has been established. The oilfield will always cost the same roughly to operate whether producing at full capacity or at 50 percent capacity but in most cases the producers try their best to produce at the maximum sustainable rate. The short-run preparation of oil is affected by the profit motive, spare capacity, stocks ava ilable for the immediate supply especially from the oil refineries and the external shocks (Zucchetto, 2006, p.45). The result of the demand and supply trends is that the oil market is affected and operates at a point where the small changes either to the supply curve or to the demand curve usually causes very large changes in the clearing price.The high demand of oil matched against the inelastic oil short run supply drive the market prices higher as depicted by the diagram below. A rise in demand causes a decrease in oil stocks at the main global refineries and forces the prices higher. It acts as an indicator to suppliers to increase production. There are time lags amid a change in price and the extra supply coming on stream. The demand for the oil is price inelastic. The compounding of an inelastic supply and demand helps to clarify some of the instability in world oil prices (The Economist Newspaper Ltd, 2004, pp.8378-8381). Adding new capacity is expensive and time-consuming. oer time, both the businesses and the individuals have their ways of cutting back the oil consumption due to the high prices this promotes new investments in production and the discovery of new sources of the market. This stepwise restores the supply-demand balance. Changes in the supply curve can be caused by some restrictions on the supply made by the sellers cartels. An example is the oil shocks of 1973 where OPEC announced that it would non sell whatever more oil to the US and would limit the overall oil output. This in turn meant that for a given price level, the oil supplied would be less because the supply curve shifts upwards. The changes on the supply caused by natural factors like the Hurricane Katrina which totally knocked out the production of oil in the Gulf of Mexico. The supply curve is shifted to the left and therefore the prices rise. An increase in the market due to some emerging markets causes the demand curve to move to the right such that for any level of pr ice given, the more the oil is demanded. In the long run the demand and the supply of oil is remarkably elastic, there is no over supply or under supply it is only the price at which the market clears. A high oil price in the long run encourages the consumers

Monday, June 10, 2019

My personal statement Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

My - Personal command ExampleI am from Indonesia. I am the only infant of my parents, and the first child from the entire family to come to America and study. My first inspiration to excel in business came from my parents, who are self-made people, and started their business with nothing at hand. They had not even graduated from any high school, but they had the enthusiasm to do something in their lives, and they have passed on that enthusiasm onto me. Another great keep back for me has been my best friend. She has supported me in many ways and has inspired me to become a better person. She is actually an artist and, since I am interested in photography, I have helped her in many of her projects and exhibitions, like In the Grove (Discovery Indonesia), Century Bookstore, and the Indonesian Consulate. For her team of artists, I am the admin and the event organizer of her website named Swargaloka. In my first semester of studying in Pasadena City College, I got a W in accounting and under the unit, because I was facing difficulties in the adjustment in the new culture. I also had so many responsibilities at that time and was expected to perform so well, that it was getting hard for me to manage. But later on, I learned how to cope, and improved in many things. For example, in this semester, I am working voluntarily with numerous organizations. However, I got a Win computer education system course, which has made me learn that I have yet to improve a lot to be able to manage both education and co-curricular activities correctly and simultaneously.... I actively participated in the Your Vote Matters, 2012 in the Asian pacific legal center, where I convinced people to vote by making hundreds of hollo calls. I have also been an internee in the operation committee of the tournament of roses. I volunteered for the American Red Cross, and also for the rock and roll marathon that was held in Los Angeles in favor of the ASPCA. Not only did I volunteer outside the ca mpus, but also in many internal activities, like volunteering for the international student registration and orientation for sixteen hours. When I was in my high school in Singapore, I received six commendation certificates for effort and achievement indoors two years. In my high school in Indonesia, I helped my community by working fifty hours in an orphanage, and donated around $500 by selling food and goodies. I also gave my services in a mosque and temple. I attended a workshop in Indonesia, regarding the understanding of AIDS. I also finish a mentally and physically challenging outward bound course, held in Singapore in 2009 for four days, aimed at developing strong character values, metallic element resilience, teamwork and leadership. At present, I am working in the consulting LLC, where I am involved in both the internal and external management of the company. I am also an active member of the AGS honor society. I am proud to have contributed to the society in social com munication and community service. My Personal Statement 2 Now, I shall discuss some of my personal qualities that make me proud of who I am, and which will surely help me in my professional life as well. My best talents include good organization, discipline, carefulness,

Sunday, June 9, 2019

In what ways are MNEs developing new business networks with an ethical Essay

In what ways are MNEs developing new business networks with an honorable orientation Using examples, explain why these developmen - turn out ExampleThe sheer size of these corporations have made them almost the likes of political actors, in the countries they are present and it is believed that their decisions and actions can affect the demography in both positive and negative ways (Holland, 2010). The emergence of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) can be traced to this very point which is concerned with the issue of reducing negative impacts of the corporate on the population of the realm. The CSR deals with the morality and social responsibility of the company, the two major factors in the strategic attention process of a country (Godiwalla and Damanpour, 2006). Ethical conduct is a major requirement of the MNEs in countries in which they operate. The expectations of the countries, in which these companies operate, are the major determinant of the good and social con duct of an organization. This examine aims to understand the ways in which MNEs are expanding their new business networks, considering the ethical considerations and the way these contribute in building competitive strength of the companies. Business morals Definition There are numerous definitions of business ethics that can be considered. For the purpose of this essay, business ethics can be defined as the principles, values and standards, which guide the business in its conduct with the external world (Ferrell, Fraedrich and Ferrel, 2011). Principles include the basic rights like, freedom of speech, justice and equal rights, which are universal and trope the basis of the rules. Values, on the other hand, comprise of social norms established by conventions in the society which are socially enforcing. These include integrity, accountability and trust and the standards for these are largely determined by investors, employees and interest groups and influence the societys acceptan ce of what is permissible or not by the business. Strategic ethic management has the potential of improving both the economic and ethical goals of MNEs, when they consider expanding the existing business to new geographies. Research work has shown that there is a positive coefficient of correlation between ethical business conducts and long-term financial development of the companies (Takei, 2011). This prompts companies to take ethical issues seriously in their expansion. The causality relationship between the profitability addition and business ethics are yet to be confirmed. Empirical evidences show that there are positive correlation between financial growth and ethical considerations. These discoveries imply that the strategic management must take into consideration the aspect of business ethics in their management process (Krishnamurthi, 2008). Rationale for business ethics Business ethics forms an important responsibility of the manager who conducts the business. The need f or implementation of business ethics is more severe for managers who have the responsibility of conducting foreign trading operations as they face more pressing ethical issues which are absent within the domestic borders (Luminita and Constantin, n.d.). There are various reasons responsible for this difference like Firstly, the difference in the legal and political structure of a country in which the business is likely to operate. These differences are further pronounced by the ethical and traditional conventions of the society. Secondly, the differences between the economic organizations of countries in

Saturday, June 8, 2019

The Thomas Kincaid Galleries Essay Example for Free

The Thomas Kincaid Galleries renderConsider what you bet of as art and then try to explain what makes it art. What do you respond to in a work of art? Is it the way it looks, or the way it makes you feel or the ideas it brings to mind? How important are the nominateal qualities?. How important is the content? Should integrity be subservient to the other? These are somewhat subjective criteria and there are really no right and wrong answers, but please think intimately the question soberly and be sure to reference actual works of art in your discussion to illustrate your ideas. The schoolbook of the question seriously and be sure to reference actual works of art in your discussion to illustrate your ideas. Hands on Art Project 100 points occasion a work of art that makes a statement. It can be done in any medium you like. See what materials you might already have on hand.. (i. e. crayons, markers, fabric scraps, paints or any interesting objects that would serve your purpo se. ) It can be composed completely of collaged images or found objects so that you do not direct to be able to draw.The work can make a political or social statement or it can be of a much personal nature, but you need to be able to verbalize the basic premise of the piece. The purpose of this project is to experience some of the processes of creating a work of art. Essay 2 Compare and Contrast The text of this essay is to be at least 750 words 160 points 1. Select a work of art from the text (preferably a color image) 2. First, spend time looking thoroughly at this work of art, then write an analysis of it. Think in terms of subject, form and content.Look for the elements of design and the principles of organization. How is the artist using shape, color, line, and texture? How is the piece balanced? What rhythms are established? Do we get a sense of movement? How is he or she using these formal aspects to help convey a mood, or idea? Also, you may want to find out a little about the artists and the historical period they represent. What do you think was the purpose for making this piece? What do you think they were trying to say? 3. Find another work that is kindred in some way.For example, two still-lifes, portraits, landscapes, or works on a similar theme, like mother and child, the crucifixion, etc. Look carefully at both, compare, and production line the two. Again, think in terms of form, subject and content. How are they similar? In what ways are they different? Be specific. 4. Respond to these works of art, both critically and personally. Do you think they are equally successful as works of art? why? How do they make you feel? Do you like them? Why or why not? Essay 3 Art Review (at least. 500 words) 100 Points Go to an art exhibition at a museum or gallery near you.Colleges universities often have art exhibitions on campus. This must be an actual, not a virtual exhibition. (Note The Thomas Kincaid galleries are not gratifying for this assignmen t) Look at the whole show and give your overall impression of the show. Does the show have a theme? What kind of work does it include? make out a piece or two to describe (as you did in the compare and contrast essay. ) Did you like the work? Why or why not? Which pieces were peculiarly meaningful? The Thomas Kincaid Galleries are not suitable for this assignment.

Friday, June 7, 2019

Good Girl Gone Bad and Date Chris Brown Essay Example for Free

Good Girl G 1 Bad and Date Chris Brown EssayRihanna utilize to be one of my favourite singers abide in the days. She started to change non only her image, but her music. I did some research and looked up what made her change this much. Her songs used to be what made her change this much. Her songs used to be much more sex-free. My research shows that Rihanna could have had experiences, or just valued a change in her. I asked myself, How has Rihanna changed throughout her c beer?, and I could come up with many assumptions, but I want to make sure my assumptions are correct. I want to talk about her relationship with Chris Brown, her record album A Girl manage Me and her album Good Girl Gone Bad.Rihanna started to date Chris Brown, an American entertainer. On February 8, 2009, Rihanna and her boyfriend Chris Brown had an argument that twisted into visible abuse. Rihanna was injured severely with facial injuries. Chris Brown turned himself in to the Los Angeles Police Depart ment in Wilshire. On March 5, 2009, Chris Brown was charged with felony assault and because of qualification criminal threats. On June 22, 2009, he pleaded guilty and accepted to do community labor, five years probation and domestic violence counselling. He released a video online to apologize for what he had caused and is deeply saddened by it. He repeatedly apologized to Rihanna and accepts full responsibility for his actions.Right after this commotion, Rihanna had her fourth album, Rated R, which was released in November 2009 and was expressed as a actually dark and mature impression due to earlier events. Her debut single, Russian Roulette, was a success. It is a mid-tempo pop song that contains famous RB ballad characteristics. fit to the lyrics, the song is about a violent romantic relationship that ended unexpectedly. That song received positive reviews about her vocal performance and the song lyrics. Her one-third global single, Rude Boy, was released and recognized as the biggest worldwide success from the whole album. The song is about a girl who is getting attention from the guys, and they want her. They are probably just teasing her and cat-calling her, but Rihanna is much more like show me what you got. Its about a womans sexual freedom.Rihannas second album, A Girl Like Me, which was released in April 2006. It sold 115,000 copies in its first week and was certified Platinum. It alternates between the sunny dancehall/pop, hip-hop, club, adult music. The songs in this album were hardly about getting back at a guy or having an intercourse. Her songs were simply songs just to dance to, about someone losing her trust, love and compassion. Her lead single in that album, SOS, was number one on the Billboard Hot 100. It was her first single to top the charts of United States. Her second single, Unfaithful, was a major worldwide hit. Songs like these were what everyone used to listen to, and not only people who have had an abusive relationship, or ha d their heart broken.Rihannas third studio album Good Girl Gone Bad was released in 2007. She wanted to start in a fresh track with the help of some music producers. She changed her image then to a more rebellious image. She dyed her tomentum cerebri black and cut it short. We figured Good Girl Gone Bad was the perfect title because it showed people Im my own person now. Not doing what anyone wants me to do. Im not the unbiased Rihanna anymore. Im taking a lot more risks and chances. I felt when I cut my hair, it shows people Im not trying to look or be anybody else, Rihanna tells MTV News. During an interview on UK radio station, Capital FM, Rihanna explained the meaning and reasoning behind the album title Bad is not sleazy. Bad has its own name to every individual and in my case it just means Ive gotten a little rebellious on the album, broken out of my shell and Im taking risks Michael capital of Mississippi Bad kind of way.

Thursday, June 6, 2019

Skin and Hair Follicle Essay Example for Free

Skin and Hair Follicle EssayChemicaally joining two or more atoms forms a atom 2. A fuluncle is a localized bacterial infection that produces constant pain of copper Hair follicle 3. Two halves of a styles form a mirror flesh of one another Symmetical balance 4. Coarse, medium, or fine is classified as Hair texture 5. Hair and snitchs are an appendage of the skin and are startle of what body system Integumenaty system 6. Round shaped pathogenic bacteria that appear singly Cocci 7. The skin that lies beneath the free edge of the nail plate Hyponychium 8. What is the study of small living things, microorganismsMicrobiology 9. In basic massage, practitioner should bend Drain lymph technique 10. Which muscle do you use the most to become hand and fingers Forearms 11. A 90 degree angle haircut will build client Layer 12. To offset a long neck in hair shap oarlockg it advisable Leave the hair full at the neck 13. To have a complete full curl, need to roll the rod at least 2 a nd half rounds 14. To minimize wide set eyeball and make them look closer Extend the eyebrow line inside the corner of the eyes 15. What is the ingredient in permanent wave Ammonium thioglycolate 16. Practitioner should wear what type of shoes to avoid hurting Low heels shoes 7. It is best to give treatment before Shampoo 18. Lipstick should applied with Cotton pledged 19. Temporarily hair removing Depilatories 20. When tweezing eyebrow, it should be Fast and follow it grown direction 21. there is a dark area on hair that has been prelighten Lighten the dark area only 22. The guidelines and controls for infection published by the cemter for disease Universal oversight 23. What color neutralize red Green 24. Which pattern should use in pin curl to avoid split facial hairline Triangle 25. Which skin story has blood vessels Dermis 26. Which bacteria is known as non-pathogenic Saprophytes 27.All disinfectant must be approved by EPA 28. To avoid overlapping in a tin retouch color the new step-up of hair 1/16 inches 29. What subsection for lighter 1/8 30. What guideline is for Establish space 31. Slithering is Cutting hair with thinning shear 32. What is the characteristic of metal brush Transfer and retain heat 33. In permanent wave avoid excessive Ringing 34. To offset a square jaw Direction hair straight to jaw line 35. Chemical relaxer is also called Sodium hydrated oxide 36. When there is a red boil with redness on the skin it is considered Bacterial infection 37. Which part of the hair follicle help generate hair growth Papilla 8. Combination of finger waving and pin curl is Skip wave 39. The chemical that seal the cuticle to provide lubrication and protection to hair is Sillicones 40. Bacteria are not harmed by disinfectant is Spore-forming stage 41. Draping cape should be coverd over the shampoo chair to prevent Water dripping down to the neck 42. The pin curl that has the least mobility No stem 43. What is the protective covering the body surface Epi thelial tissue 44. A wig for men used to coverd the baksheesh and crown of the head is Toupee 45. How do you mix the nail polish Roll the bottle between the palm 46. What is the cool primary color dingy 47. Ability of body to destroy invasive agents to enter the body Immunity 48. Moist heat is used for Sterilization 49. The process which cells is produced Mitosis 50. The method of hair extensions undeniable heat from a special tool The fusion bonding 51. Fungus on artificial nail is caused by Water gets in artificial nail 52. Hangnails by chance treated by softening the cuticle with Hot oil 53. What water is allowed shampoo to lather freely on hair Soft water 54. acquisition in finger waving is important because The foundation of styling 55. PH in acid-balanced shampoo is Between 4. 5 and 5. 5 56.What is the benefit of scalp massage increase blood circulation 57. What are substances used to neutralize acids or raised the pH Alkanolamines 58. When doing a facial practitioner sh ould drape the client from Chest down 59. by light what type of hair is most transparent Straight hair fine hair thining hair 60. When cutting hair if the client chair is too low, practitioner will get Shoulder pain 61. Best thing to do if practitioner noticed an infectious disease on client favor to a physician 62. How many nerves are in the arms and wrist?

Wednesday, June 5, 2019

Rammed Earth As A Low Impact Building Environmental Sciences Essay

Rammed hide issue As A Low Impact Building Environmental Sciences EssayRammed existence is astray used as a complex body part material from past umpteen familys. It is a monolithic type of construction which is built by compacting successive molds of soil. Rammed hide out as a material has a wide range of advantages and utilizations. So, an approach to explore the rammed basis construction in temperate climate of India by concord the proficiencys and methods of construction, the properties of the material and the use of rammed mankind in from past till present as well as in prox in described. The essay is a brief depicted object of the material, its history, technology, climatic response, feasibility and stand in todays construction era. Experimental data have been included.1. INTRODUCTIONSUSTAINABLE BUILDINGThe sustainable mental synthesis technology has seen a recent jump in interest in recent times. The rise in Global Warming has led Governments, to take alert mea sures, to execute more environmental friendly practices. The government of UK has set up plans to trim clashing on public by 60% by the year 2050 (DTI, 2007). Currently, the expressions in Europe contribute to 25-40% of the dynamism used by the society (UNEP, 2007).The energy used in a construction grass be summarised by, the bodily energy of material, the energy spent in transportation, that used in construction, the energy consumed in the use of edifice and lastly, the energy used in disposal of the building at the end of its life. This energy consumption can be reduced by using impoverished usurpation material, which carries imprint embodied energy. The embodied energy contributes to 10% of the total energy consumed by the building (UNEP, 2007). The use of locally available material can reduce the transportation energy. Different environmental building technologies, such as passive design for buildings can be used to reduce the energy in use of the buildings.Thus the u se and study of upset impact building material has gained importance.SUSTAINABLE MATERIALSSustainable materials have been used by means of centuries, but the environmental building technology, which has come out of the current environmental restraints, has set the revival of the old environment friendly materials. The locally available materials, which can be used without spending energy on transportation, manufacture of materials and so far processing of raw materials, prove more economic, for energy consumption. Industrialised construction owns a lot of pollution. Thus the alternate methods of construction, viz, abode, rammed earth, stone, straw bale, marihuana-lime, bamboo, cob, wood, earth-bag, wattle and daub among others.The tralatitious building methods have employed use of the natural materials in the past. Now, these materials and technologies, through study and experiment, be being reinvented, for efficient sustainable low impact use. Rammed humanity is one such ma terial which is being revived as a low impact building material. The significance of this material in the history of architecture is worthless. Michael Crichton, an author describes,If you dont know history, hence you dont know whatsoeverthing. You argon a leaf that doesnt know it is part of a tree. This essay is an opportunity, to learn about the vernacular and advance(a) use of Rammed earth. As rammed earth construction is implant in different climatic zones, it also brings the necessity of considering the materials relation with various climate types. It is important to study the properties, techniques (both vernacular and modern) of building in load bearing and framed construction and also their response to climate and geographical context.This essay explores Rammed Earth, as a low impact building material. The study of its historic social context and its appropriateness in todays building scenario is also carried out. An analysis is made on the appropriateness of Rammed E arth, for modern-day architecture.RAMMED EARTHOne of the oldest building methods, Rammed Earth is a (adjective) construct of construction. Through centuries, this method has been used to build superior quality walls, which encompass the qualities a building should possess, viz. Strength, beauty and utility. Buildings made of rammed earth have stood strong for hundreds of years. In the past decade, the importance of rammed earth has considerably increased. In view of, the need of a more sustainable environment as a material consuming less energy, yet providing a greater life span, Rammed Earth is being re invented as a nonher low impact, energy efficient building material.The Rammed Earth walls be made using materials of earth, namely, lime, mud, gravel, chalk, etc. These constituents ar easily available on any land, and hence, the Rammed Earth construction has been found on all continents, except, the Antarctica. Its favourability to any climate and measure of military capabili ty are proved by the many ancient earth buildings which suave exist, eg. The Great Wall of China, China. Many earth social organizations sit in the foot of the Himalayas. Earth heritage can also be found in the countries of China, India, France, Morocco, Spain, South America, and Europe.1.2 RAMMED EARTH formulaRammed earth walls are constructed by compacting soil in the formwork. Usually damp soil from the site is used directly, or sieved, to remove the orotundr gravels in the soil. This soil is consequently added with suitable proportions of stabilizers. Initially animal blood was used as a stabilizer, as opposed to the cement, asphalt or lime stabilizers of today. Straw is used as rein ridement, and coalesce in the soil batches. A layer of soil of thickness 150mm is placed in the formwork and then compacted with rammers. Once this layer gets settled, other layers of same thickness follow. The required height can be achieved by moving the formwork upward as the layers settle . The wall hardens close as soon as the form work is removed. Rammed earth takes 2 years to cure. It gains compressive strength as it cures. Thus the construction is best done in warm weather, so the walls can dry and harden.1.3 PROPERTIESDry densityStrength (compressive, tensile, shear)DurabilityShrinkageSurface finishThermal insulationAdvantagesDistinct sortNatural and readily availableLow embodied energy (a level standardised to brick veneer construction)Unstablised earth is reusable post-demolitionHigh moisture mass, hygroscopic helps rate humidityUse of local soils supports sustainability practices.High thermal mass (though work is still underway to quantify its extent)Airtight construction achievabletraditional form of constructionModern methods are widely tried and tested overseas eg AustraliaDisadvantagesConcerns over durability requires careful detailingPoor thermal resistance outside(a) walls require additional insulationNot all soil types are appropriateHigh leve ls of construction quality control are required eternal than average construction periodFew modern examples exist in the UK relatively untested in UK climate.High clay content can cause moisture movement. Structures may need to accommodate this.No UK codes of practiceAdding cement stabilisation can compromise environmental credentials1.4 STABILISED EARTH CONSTRUCTIONThough rammed earth is considered a strongly sustainable material, it has approximately shortcomings in relation with durability. Some of the factors in natural earth which need improvement are, body of water supply resistance, shrinkage, external surface protection and strength. For overcoming this problem, stabilisers are used. In olden times, lime or animal blood were used to stabilise the material, while modern construction uses lime, cement or asphalt emulsions. Some modern builders also use bottles, tires, or pieces of timber.Though stabilisers add to the carbon emission and thus the negative impact to some ext ent, they reduce uncertainty and risk. Hence, they are used. The most common stabiliser used is cement. It generally admits 6 to 7% of the total mixture.Characteristics of Stabilised Rammed Earth lastingnessStrength of unstabilised Rammed Earth is 1MPa and that of stabilised Rammed Earth is 10MPa. Stabilised Rammed Earth is suitable for both load bearing and framed structure.FIRE SAFETYEarth is a non-combustible material. Rammed Earth walls can sustain fire for 9 hours.RESISTANCE TO MOISTUREEarth walls can control humidity. Unclad internal walls can waiting humidity 40% 60% which is suitable for asthma patients, and storage of books.SOUND INSULATIONRammed Earth is effective for insulation. The design should accommodate provision of cavity walls for better practiced separation.CONSERVATION OF FUEL AND POWERU-value of 300mm earth wall is H 1.5 3 W/m2K, therefore insulation needs adding in external wall applications.MATERIALS AND cunningMaterial adequacy can be found out by sampl ing, lab testing or precedence. The quality of workmanship can only be derived against specification, test panels, etc.1.5 DESIGN ISSUESSTABILISED RAMMED EARTH walls need added protection. Hence additional measures are required to be taken while designing rammed earth construction.1.51 INSULATIONAs discussed earlier, rammed earth has some shortcomings. Rammed earth has poor thermal performance, in some areas. Here, extra insulation is required.Earth walls breathe. They absorb moisture and then let it evaporate. Rammed earth is hygroscopic. Wherever walls have external cladding, the cladding systems should be vapour pervious. It is wise to consider vapour permeable walls for both unstabilised and stabilised walls, to reduce condensation build up on the inside face of insulation.When moisture is leave behinded to escape from the external face, the permeability is of less concern while specifying internally utilise insulation.External insularismWall needs to be protected from weath ering. Thermal mass should be exposed internally. Some types of insulation try outs are described below.Insulating renderrammed earth with insulating renderFigure cover insulationSource http// Board and Renderrammed earth and insulation board and renderFigure showing insulationSource http// materials breathing insulation cellulose slab, mingled wood wool board (not cement-based), wood fibre board, cork, hemp, and hemp-lime.Render limecrete, mineral render, plaster, proprietary permeable renders.Rain screen Claddingrammed earth and rainscreen claddingFigure showing rain screen claddingSource http// materials breathing insulation cellulose slab, composite wood wool board (not cement-based), wood fibre board, cork, sheeps wool, hemp, and hemp-lime.Cladding wood, tiles, slate, board and polymer-based render, proprietary cladding systems.B) INTERN AL INSULATIONIn case of internal insulation, the natural come out of the exterior is maintained, but the available thermal mass on the inside is lost.rammed earth internal insulationFigure Free standing studwork with infill insulation.Source http// materials Cellular glass, Mineral wool slab, expanded polystyrene, Phenolic foam, Polyisocyanurate (PIR), Polyurethane (PUR).1.52 WEATHER PROTECTIONProtection Given By the Rooframmed earth overhanging eavesFigure The eaves impart protection from rain.Source http// and Baserammed earth footing and baseFigure The DPC should be finished flush with the wall surface to avoid splash. Sourcehttp// historical USEArchaeological depict can date entire cities constructed of earth back end over 10,000 years. All of the great civilisations of the Middle East were constructed with mud brick and rammed earth Assyria, B abylon, Persia, and Sumeria. Rammed earth construction was used to construct countless monuments, temples, ziggurats, churches, and mosques. Many of these structures (the Great Wall of China being one) have stood the test of time and are still standing today.Rammed earth construction originated in China, in the Neolithic age. Rammed Earth remains have been found in the archaeological sites of Yangzhou and Langham cultures of the yellow river valley, dating back to 5000 BC. By 2000 BC, the use of this material spread across china. Rammed Earth was commonly used for building walls and foundations.The 4000 year old, Great Wall of China has also been to begin with constructed in Rammed Earth, known there as Taipa. Its outer covering of stones and bricks, made later, gives it an appearance of stone wall. Foundations dating 5000BC have been discovered in Assyria. The core of the sunlight pyramid in Teotihuacan, Mexico, built surrounded by 300 and 900 AD, consists of approximately 2 mill ion tons of Rammed Earth.Rammed Earth developed as a construction technique in various parts of the world independently. It had great influence in the Middle East Countries, China and Europe. It also became popular in Africa and America. The Romans built many earth structures throughout Europe.2.1 GLOBAL DISTRIBUTIONThe early human shelters were caves. So, the use of earth construction is believed to have started as extensions to caves, such as mounds of earth at cave entrances, or cut earth, etc. The Rammed Earth building technique developed in several places independently. Man spread its use to different locations with his travelling for hunting.Rammed Earth structures are made from soil removed from the ground. The soil which has appropriate proportions of clay soil and sandy silt, is suitable for construction. The regions with abundance of such soil make use of earth construction. This soil with silt, sand and clay together is found in various locations, but is usually found in hilly areas, edges of large river valleys, mountainous regions with glacial tilt. The Himalayan ranges have many still existing examples of Rammed Earth structures. Ladakh, Bhutan, Nepal are regions where Rammed Earth practices were popular. Rammed Earth continues to be promoted in the country of Bhutan.Traditional Rammed Earth was prepared by ramming natural soil in small batches in a vertical formwork. The regions, which cannot provide soil favourable for preparing sun dry out clay bricks, or timber made use of rammed earth as a construction material. The desert sections of the Great Wall of China, Potala Palace in Lhasa, are made of Rammed Earth. Rammed Earth was also used to build fortification in North Africa and Spain.In Europe, rammed earth technology was used in vernacular ardor in the late middle ages, and continues to be used in Africa today.2.2 METHOD OF CONSTRUCTIONhttp// was removed from the ground and used for construction. It was sieved if found necessary. Straw and lime, mixed into the soil, were used as additives to increase the strength of structure. The soil was then dropped into a formwork in layers of 150mm high. The layer is compacted using heavy rammers. On compaction of one layer another layer is laid and the same procedure is carried out, till the formwork is full. The formwork is then moved vertically to accommodate more earth. Once the formwork is moved vertically, the plain timbers are removed from the wall, leaving characteristic holes.Figure Urdu manuscript showing Rammed Earth Construction.Historic Formworkrammed earth formworkFormwork is made up of timber sides. These are held together by vertical timbers connected to horizontal timbers which go through the wall. This formwork design is found in Nepal and Morocco. In some places, stones are placed over horizontal timbers to allow their removal. The traditional rammed earth wall can thus be constructed with little labou r and without recourse to temporary works.Figure Rammed Earth Formwork2.3 MODES OF FAILURE AND REPAIR TECHNIQUESThe strength present in unstabilised earth construction, also owes to a less understood phenomenon of suction. The pressure difference between air and water components of soil creates the interface of water and air to curve. This curve accommodates pressure difference, bringing about surface tension. The combination of surface tension and pressure difference creates a strong attractive force in the pores, thus strengthening the soil wall structure. (Jaquin P.A.)A study on failures has been made extensively by Paul Jaquin of Durham University. Considering failure implement of historic structures can be utilised in taking measures for rectification and obstruction for future. Cracking is the main mode of failure in Rammed earth structures. A study of presence of water, for strength is also important.WaterA small amount of water can add strength to the structure. Excess of this water can also lead to failure. In the later case, structure becomes saturated, loses strength, then integration and finally leads to complete destruction of the building. When a structure is not maintained, Water enters a building. It can enter the wall when the roof is open. Slurry is make on the top of the wall and the material moves downward, prima(p) in complete erosion of the wall. The water flows through the walls and evaporates through the surface, leaving precipitated version of salt in the pores. This salt expands and cracks the pores and leads to removal of fine grained surface.Use of permeable cement covering on the surface is not recommended, as water gets trapped and movement might occur. Use of less permeable material like brick wall also poses danger, if the water level increases leading to loss of structural integrity. The use of masonry to protect earth walls had been used in China and Spain to protect walls from the threat posed by artillery.CrackingCracks are formed in walls due to unsaturation of soil. The tensile stress in soil is less, which leads to this unsaturation.Crack StitchingAs a treatment to the cracks formed in buildings, crack fasten is applied. This method is applied with utmost care, so as to not induce any more stresses in the cracks. Hence aristocratic Stitching is practiced. This involves application of comparable material across the crack. This provides similar stiffness to the material, and thus works well in repair of large cracks in earthen structuresCrack stitching was carried out for a monument in Ladakh, India, by Jogn Hurd in 2004. The technique he used is as follows. A buttress is placed at the base of the slope. Soft ties are introduced across the crack to create structural integrity. A mud brick staple is constructed across the crack, to half the thickness of wall. Part of the staple is cut and hemp matting placed inside the cut. Mortared sundried bricks are then placed within the cut, forming a solid staple wall.Seismic ProtectionRammed Earth is constructed in horizontal layers. Once one layer is complete, the formwork is raised upward for another layer. Every layer is known as a lift. Historical evidence shows that materials such as, straw, lime, stones, brick are placed between lifts. These materials act as tie beams across the walls, tying them together and thus help in seismic protection (Hurd,2006). In some sites of Spain built in 1504, lengths of timber were placed in the wall while ramming. Their appropriate placement, proves an understanding of seismic design. These timers were first made circular, then covered in a lime and straw mortar, which was then rammed within the wall. These timbers were placed at 1.6m intervals, in a ring, throughout the building.2.4 EXAMPLECUsersVarunDesktopbasgo1.jpgFigure showing move made of rammed earth at basgo, India. Source http// site at Basgo consists of four distinct structures, three temple s and a fort. The fort (Basgo Rabtan Lhartsekhar Castle) was built first and is the only structure made from rammed earth. The rammed earth section stands in the centre of the site, and consists of a mainly ruined set of walls, with no roof structure. A large crack is viewable in the face of one of the walls which were repaired by in 2000. The castle withstood a three year siege in 1684, but may have been destroyed by invading Sikhs in around 1819 and definitely by 1843.3.0 CONTEMPORARY USEThe Rammed Earth construction received worldwide interest, owing to its non dependency on materials such as cement, ease of availability, and potential for recycling. The most important factor for its resurgence is its sustainable longevity. Rammed Earth is now being treated as a structural material and rules for designing have developed accordingly.In the 15th century, rammed earth was brought to Europe. The 19th century, America saw resurgence of Rammed Earth as a construction Technology. The book Rural Economy, by S.W. Johnson popularised it in the states. The famous historic landmark, Burough House Plantation in 1821, is the largest complex of built Earth in the US.after 1920, for almost 30 years government spent a lot of money on research of Earth structure construction. It nonetheless built low price bases which became very successful. But, after WW2, the use of earth as a building material declined as modern building materials and technology were available at economic rates. Contractors and engineers found modern construction easier. Thus, use of rammed earth declined.3.1 GLOBAL DISTRIBUTIONThe modern era of Rammed Earth can be seen particularly in California, Western Australia and UK.Australia has rich granite deposits and lateritic soils, suitable for construction of Rammed Earth. The property owners find all suitable material on their site itself, or nearby. This type of construction proves to be economical and long lasting. Thus the popularity grew in Austral ia.The technique has observed growth in the southwest, around Tucson, Arizona and Las Cruces and Albuquerque, New Mexico, California, Colorado.3.2 METHOD OF CONSTRUCTIONThe method is similar to historic construction at large. All the old practices employed unstabilised earth, rammed on a raised masonry stem, protected by roof hangings. Today, concrete is used in the structure. A concrete stem must project 6inches higher up grade. Foundations are in the shape of an inverted T. In some places, rubble filled trenches are packed with reinforced concrete beam 10 inches thick and wider than the wall, to hold the ledges. Earth material is stabilised using Portland Cement in the weight of 5%. Softer earth plaster, stabilised with asphaltic emulsions, is used to clad unstabilised earth walls.The formwork, now famous as concrete forming panel, is made of sturdy steel frame and extra plywood inset, suited for rammed earth. Pneumatic ramming is used instead of the ancient hand ramming. The s trength obtained by both is same.3.4 EXAMPLECUsersVarunDesktopCAMR2FM1.jpgFig Rammed earth house in Bangalore, India. Source http// is home was designed by Chitra Vishwanath Architects for Nishwath Hassan and Prakash Iyer, a Bangalore-based couple in their mid-30s. The walls are 9 thick. They have sufficient self-weight to not need any other attachment or reinforcement. There is a nice rich mud mortar between the plinth beam (theres a beam above the stone foundation) on which the bricks rest and then the rammed earth. The bricks or mud blocks can be optionally done away with. The self-weight of the wall structure is sufficient to hold it in place. In India we always have built in brick, stone and cement and reinforced cement concrete. Except for the roofs, beams and concrete columns (if there are any) steel is not used to reinforce walls. Our structural engineers say its not necessary. The load bearing capacity of the RE walls or any wall is dependent on their own strength and by self-weight they hold well in placeThe soil that was excavated from the basement was used to build the house. It was mixed by hand with sand and 5% cement then transported without the use of machinery. Its important that the design makes way for hot air (vertically up) and brings light into the right parts without using humungous openings. Helps in controlling cost of structure too. These Ecological homes that we make are cheaper than the conventional designer homes in the same city4.0 APPROPRIATENESS OF RAMMED EARTH IN DIFFERENT CLIMATE TYPESThe deportment and function of rammed earth structures depend upon the climate they are exposed to. Rammed earth is an ideal choice for climates with distinct variation in day and night temperatures. Rammed earth is generally found in dry climates eg. Mediterranean rim, through central Asia and in parts of China and Himalayan regions. Whereas in tropical climates where the differen ce between day and night time temperatures is not much, Rammed earth does not work well. Although Rammed earth does not work well in excessively humid climates, evidence show that rammed earth structures can withstand severe rainstorm and snow fall for a short duration. A brief overview of different climates is given below.Temperate ClimatesRammed Earth is placed in parts exposed to sunlight. The special properties of rammed earth alloy it to store the heat from the day, and release it at night, thus providing warmth. In these regions, walls are insulated to prevent heat loss.Hot, Arid ClimatesBuildings of high thermal mass work potentially here, in the deserts. The wall retards the passage of heat from the external face to the internal face. It even radiates the heat gained in the day time, back at night.Hot Humid ClimatesNight temperatures remain elevated in this environment, thus challenging the strength of rammed earth. rammed earth is placed away from direct sunlight so that it does not gain extra heat, as it will get overheated.5.0 Tropical climate5.1 Impact of climate5.2 Local Availability of RE5.3 Other uses of RE5.4 Other factors deemed of interest.Use http// Vernacular style in temperate climate.5.6 Whether it has been low impactPage 12 lax5.7 Whether it is suitable for the climate5.8 Which other materials are suitable for temperate climate.6.0 ConclusionAppropriateness in Contemporary architecture.The likely future for the application of rammed earth is as Thermal mass. Internal load-bearing unstabilised walls. External load-bearing stabilised walls.(ref. Jaquin P.A. http// http// REF http// http// s-does-rammed-earth-perform-the-bestcatid=31generalItemid=46)(reference http// Rammed Earth chassis and construction guidelines, Peter Walker et al, BRE 2005